COS Resources

Delphi Methodology 

2-stage modified Delphi consensus process was conducted as part of Aim 1 of this project, which includes creation of a minimum set of outcomes and associated measurement instruments for use in all clinical research studies that are planning to evaluate acute respiratory failure/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARF/ARDS) survivors after hospital discharge.

The protocol developed for our modified Delphi process can be found under Aim 1 on the “About us” page.

Core Outcomes Measures for Patient-Centered Clinical Research in Acute Respiratory Failure Survivors


Generic templates and resources to aid researchers interested in implementing a modified Delphi consensus process.



  1. Akinremi A, Turnbull AE, Chessare CM, Bingham III CO, Needham, Dinglas VD. Delphi panelists for a core outcome set project suggested both new and existing dissemination strategies that were feasibly implemented by a research infrastructure project. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 2019; 114:104-107. PubMed
  2. Dinglas VD, Cherukuri SPS, Needham DM. Core outcomes sets for studies evaluating critical illness and patient recovery. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2020. 26:489-499. Free Full Text
  3. Dinglas VD, Faraone LN, Needham DM. Understanding patient-important outcomes after critical illness: a synthesis of recent qualitative, empirical and consensus-related studies. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2018. 24:401-409. Free Full Text
  4. Needham DM, Sepulveda KA, Dinglas VD, Chessare CM, Friedman LA, Bingham III CO, Turnbull AE. Core outcome measures for clinical research in acute respiratory failure survivors: an international modified Delphi consensus study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017;196:1122-1130. PubMed
  5. Turnbull AE, Sepulveda KA, Dinglas VD, Bingham CO, Needham, DM. Core domains for clinical research in acute respiratory failure survivors: an international modified Delphi consensus study. Critical Care Medicine 2017; 45(6):1001-1010. PubMed
  6. Turnbull AEDinglas VD, Friedman LA, Chessare CM, Sepulveda KA, Bingham CO, Needham DM.  A Survey of Delphi Panelists after Core Outcome Set Development Revealed Positive Feedback and Methods to Facilitate Panel Member Participation. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 2018;102:99-106. Article

Helpful links:

Core Outcome Set – Methodology

Reporting and Dissemination